Hill to Plain: Causes and Impacts of Internal Migration of Indigenous Peoples in Bangladesh

Author Name

Basu Mittra Chakma

Author Address

University of Chittagong, Bangladesh email: [email protected]


Hill to plain, Internal migration, Indigenous peoples, Chittagong hill tracts


Various factors are related in internal migration of indigenous peoples from their ancestral places, that is hill, to the plain areas. This article aims to find out the pull and push factors of the indigenous migration. The study has been conducted in Chittagong Export Processing Zone at Chittagong, Bangladesh. The major finding of the study is that indigenous peoples are greatly migrated to plain places for economic reason voluntarily. It also indicates that among 14 indigenous groups living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), mainly Chakma people have been migrated in large volume. It finds that women are clearly ahead than their counterparts in migrating to the plain areas. Due to internal migration in plain areas 65.2% of total respondents reported their food habit is changing. The decrease in the use of traditional dress is alarming for their identity and distinctiveness. 21.6% of total respondents reported they do not totally use their traditional dress. 11.6% respondents reported that they use Bangla language with family members in house and 20.8% children do not use mother tongue as a medium of communication. The migrant’s traditional culture and customs are greatly affected after their migration which is highlighted in this paper.


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